With more than 10,000 years of history, Peru boasts a great wealth of cultures and traditions. It has delicious, acclaimed gastronomy, possesses imposing archaeological complexes, 12 Unesco world heritage sites and has vast natural reserves. It is undoubtedly one of the most varied countries in the world.
Peru is located in the western part of South America. Its territory borders Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Chile. It covers 1,285,215 km2 of land and 200 nautical miles of the Pacific Ocean, as well as 60 million hectares in Antarctica. It has an estimated population of over 31.5 million inhabitants.
It is the third largest country in South America and one of the 20 largest in the world - its surface area covers more than the territories of Spain and France combined. Being a consultative party to the Antarctic Treaty, it has a scientific station called 'Machu Picchu' on this continent.
The country is divided into 25 regions or departments, including the constitutional province of El Callao, where Peru’s main port is located. The capital is Lima, a city founded in the year 1535 by the Spanish, and becoming the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. After independence in 1821, it became the capital of the republic.
Peru is a highly diverse country. It has 11 ecoregions and 84 of the 117 life zones that exist in the world. It has an enormous range of landscapes due to its geographical conditions, which in turn give it a great diversity of natural resources. Three main regions can be identified in its territory, which is the traditional way of dividing it according to altitudes: Coast, Mountains and Jungle.
The Jungle occupies 59% of the territory of this country, where 12% of the country’s population is concentrated. The Mountains, dominated by the Andes mountain range, occupy 30% of the territory and are home to 36% of the population. Most of the population – 52% – is concentrated on the coast, despite only occupying 11% of the national territory.
Spanish is the official language of Peru and is spoken by 84% of the population. In addition, 47 native languages are spoken in the country, including Quechua and Aymara, spoken by 13% and 1.7% of the population, respectively.
In July 2016, a new government took charge, headed by the president Pedro Pablo Kuczynski from the party Peruvians for Change. This was the fourth democratically elected government after the transitional government of 2000, which announced general elections for the following year, showing the political stability of this country.
The great culture of ancient Peru is also expressed by a legacy of a wide variety of native languages that co-exist in its territory. Spanish is the official language and is used in most of the country. Other languages have been recognized by the Constitution, such as Quechua, which is spoken in many Andean regions in different varieties, and Aimara, the predominant language of the southern Andes.
Shipibo, Ashaninka and Aguaruna, used by Amazon communities, are just some of the country's 43 native languages.
Freedom of religion is a fundamental right in Peru’s culture, although Catholicism is the main religion, another legacy of the Spanish. Religious festivals have strong Spanish influence, but they are also an example of how different beliefs and religions of Peru's pre-Hispanic cultures coexist.
Festivals: The coming together of different creeds, customs and experiences have created close to 3,000 annual popular festivals in Peru, including patron saint feasts, processions, carnivals and rituals, encompassing the expression of belief in God, respect for nature and the celebration of freedom. Peruvian festivals have a mystical side to them; most of them are the result of a fusion between Catholicism and pre-Hispanic religious traditions. Repaying the earth is part of the main celebrations in all regions, and is about rewarding and recognizing the Pachamama (Mother Earth) for her endless generosity.
Peruvian cuisine is another expression of a national identity that embraces multiple cultures co-existing in one territory; a unifying element in Peru that can be seen everywhere.
Peruvians have become experts at experimenting with new flavors, harmonizing aromas and discovering new ways of cooking. The diversity of Peru's agricultural production, microclimates, geography, multiple cultures and the genius of its chefs have enriched the culinary nature of Peru to the point where it is now recognized as one of the finest expressions of the global cuisine.
Mistura is the main gastronomic fair in Peru. It is held every year in Lima, bringing together the leading chefs and restaurants of Peru. The fair has been named the Gastronomic Capital of America and is one of the main events on international tourism itineraries in the region.
Ancient Peruvians were outstanding handicraft artisans with highly developed technical skills. Pre-Hispanic Peruvian art has been dated back to ancient times through the discovery of weaving, gourds, wood, stone, gold, silver, pottery and even mud, which were used for day-to-day living. This ancestral heritage is still seen today in the coastal, mountain and jungle towns, in a variety of high-quality woven items. Silver filigree, carved gourds, Ayacuchan altars, Huamanga stone and wood carvings, Chulucanas pottery and Monsefú ponchos, among others, are highly valued around the world.
Music and Dances:
Since pre-Hispanic times, music and dance has always played an important role in Peruvian society. Ancient Peruvians used sea shells, reeds and even animal bones to produce sounds. It is said that the Peruvians of the Nazca culture were the most important pre-Hispanic musicians on the continent. Panpipes or zampoñas, terracotta trumpets and pututos were some of the most important musical instruments in ancient Peru. The music explored themes of religion, war and profanity.
Another result of its many cultures, Peru today has a rich and varied folklore and a wide diversity of both music and dancing, that combine indigenous genres and spirit with Hispanic influence, as well as modern styles that have adapted to the changes and tastes of society's larger social groups.