The largest population and greatest diversity of butterflies in the Cuzco department can be found in the jungle areas of the Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary. Approximately 252 species have been identified, 12 of which were new to science. The routes to the archaeological zone enable visitors to admire species with bright, intense colours.
In Lower Urubamba, high levels of fruit production have made the area very attractive to butterflies. There are several ongoing projects to establish nurseries for the Morpho, Caligo, Heliconius and Phoebis species, among others.