The largest population and greatest diversity of butterflies in the Cusco department inhabit the wooded areas of the Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary. Approximately 252 species have been identified, 12 of which were discovered by scientists between 1,500 - 4,000 meters (4,921 - 13,123 feet) above sea level. Hikes around the archaeological area allow visitors to spot different kinds of butterflies.
In Lower Urubamba, high fruit production has made the area a center of attraction for butterflies. There are several projects to establish nurseries for the Morpho, Caligo, Heliconius and Phoebis species, among others.