There are 104 types of ecosystems in the whole planet and Peru has 84, i.e. almost 80% of those that exist in the world. This has allowed it to be included in the list of the 12 countries with most ecosystems on Earth, a real privilege in a world in which concrete jungles increasingly predominate.
But what is an ecosystem? According to the RAE dictionary, it is "the community of living beings whose vital processes are interconnected and develop according to physical factors in the same environment".
11 ecoregions are thus recognized in Peru, including surprising natural gems such as the cold sea, the tropical sea, the coastal desert, the equatorial dry forest, the tropical forest of the Pacific, the steppe mountain range, the puna, the paramo, the high altitude rain forests (high jungle), the Amazon tropical forest (low jungle) and the palm savannah.
However, in order to classify the types of ecosystems existing in Peru in a way that is more understandable, three large groups have been created: the coast, highlands and jungle. From the Pacific to the Amazon rainforest, from the mangroves of the north to the snow-capped mountains of the south, Peru is a world within the world.
The mighty Amazon River, the largest in the world and one of the most famous on the planet, originates in the vast Peruvian Amazon rainforest, the second largest in the Americas after the Brazilian one. Its high concentration of unexplored flora and fauna make it one of the most important in the world. Just saying that 57% of Peru's territory is tropical jungle allows you to understand why this country is one of the last lungs of the planet.
The beautiful and majestic mountain range of the Andes crosses Peruvian territory and divides it in two parts: the coast and the jungle. However, it also acts as a barrier between both ecosystems, allowing the conditions to exist for its pronounced features. Its highest peaks are over 20,000 feet above sea level and extend from the depths of the Atacama Trench to the coast of Peru.
The coastal desert crosses Peruvian territory from north to south, extending from the mangroves of the north to the geysers of the south. Here there are lagoons, reefs and estuaries, serving as food for the many birds that find ideal food sources in this region. The coast is also bathed by both the Pacific Ocean and the rivers that descend from the generous and imposing Andes; this contributes to Peru being one of the countries with the greatest variety of marine species on the planet.